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CONSERVATION AND DEVELOPMENT ISSUES:
EXAMPLES FROM VENEZUELA

In Venezuela, a recent presidential decree regulates the protection of mangroves and associated ecosystems in the context of watersheds, prohibiting specific activities such as dredging, land filling and use of biocides, but excluding areas with forest management or subsistence activities of indigenous people.
Below are some examples of measures taken to harmonize conservation and development .


++ Shrimp farm development. Proposals to initiate extensive shrimp farm developments have been controlled by the government through requirements for appropriate siting of ponds, monitoring water quality, controlling discharges into the surroundings and the strict sanitary control of seed stocks.

++ Industrial salt production. Proposals to convert the 5000 hectares of mangroves of Los Olivitos Swamp to large-scale salt production were countered by a multi-use proposal from the government, and public demands for environmental impact assessments. One particular area of concern for any salt development is the discharge of hypersaline water, which in shallow waters can have far-reaching biological consequences.

++ Port development. The problems of dredging and dredge spoil dumping were taken into account by an oil company which manages the important pipeline terminal of Caripito, about 100 km upstream on the densely mangrovebordered San Juan River in the north-eastern region of Venezuela. Navigation channels had to be deepened for larger ships. Following an environmental impact assessment, it was possible to recommend minimalimpact disposal sites for spoil behind the riverine mangrove fringe, where mangroves would not be affected.

mangrove mangrove
Source :
BIOLOGICAL IMPACTS OF OIL POLLUTION: MANGROVES
International Petroleum Industry Environmental Conservation Association

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